30 April 2019

30th April 1857 - Eugen Bleuler born


Eugen Bleuler was born on 30th April 1857 in Switzerland. He trained as a doctor then as a psychiatrist and was the first to name the grouping of conditions known as schizophrenia - a term which he considered more apt than the term dementia praecox used beforehand. Through observation he noted that schizophrenia did not cause deterioration of mental capacity and so was not a dementia. The term schizophrenia instead implied a splitting or schism of thought, emotion and behaviour in various ways.

Bleuler identified primary and secondary symptoms.

The primary symptoms he called the four As
Affect - flattened or inappropriate emotions for a situation.
Ambivalence - conflicting attitudes and emotions.
Associations - loose thought associations leading to disordered thought.
Autism - social withdrawal.

Bleuler also identified secondary symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. These had been the primary symptoms of dementia praecox.

Thankyou to today in psychology history for the date.

29 April 2019

29th April 1869 - Neurasthenia first used

On 29th April 1869 George Miller Beard published an article in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal where he coined the term neurasthenia. It became an important diagnostic term for almost a century until superseded by today's terminology. Neurasthenia is a disorder of fatigue, physical or mental, that makes it difficult to carry on normal living. The term neurosis is nowadays used more.

Thanks to David Webb's book On this Day in Psychology for the date.

28 April 2019

28th April 1858 - Susanna Le Fanu died


Susanna Le Fanu died the 28th April 1858. Her exact cause of death is not given. If Sheridan Le Fanu, Irish writer of horror fiction - her husband, even had a suspicion that Susanna had hastened her own death, it would have caused him a great deal of guilt. Date found from google books

27 April 2019

27th April 1982 - Hinckley trial


According to the New York Times, John W. Hinckley Jr. went on trial on 27th April 1982 for the attempted assassination of President Ronald Reagan. He was acquitted by reason of insanity and sent to a psychiatric institution and has only recently been released to live with his mother, now in her nineties, with strict conditions about his movement and use of the internet and any contact with Jodie Foster.

Hinckley became obsessed with Jodie Foster after becoming obsessed with the film Taxi Driver in which Jodie Foster played a teenage prostitute. Hinckley stalked her when she went to Yale. His attempt to kill Reagan came out of his obsession with Jodie Foster. He hit Reagan with a ricochet, and wounded 3 others.

According to Wikipedia he signed up to a writing course at Yale and slipped things under Foster's door. He wrote before the attempt 'Over the past seven months I've left you dozens of poems, letters and love messages in the faint hope that you could develop an interest in me. Although we talked on the phone a couple of times I never had the nerve to simply approach you and introduce myself.... The reason I'm going ahead with this attempt now is because I cannot wait any longer to impress you.'

This was devastating and deeply depressing to the young Jodie Foster. She had gone to Yale University after being a child star but her anonymity and security was totally shattered by the stalking and subsequent events.

The acquittal by reason of insanity caused a lot of controversy and afterwards some states revised laws about the use of the insanity defence in a criminal prosecution.

In the film Taxi Driver, Travis, the taxi driver, attended a public rally where he planned to assassinate the president.

26 April 2019

26th April 1848 - first learning disability institution opened


On 26th April 1848 The Highgate Asylum for Idiots was opened with its first 8 patients . This was England's first formal institution for people with learning disabilities and was sponsored by some benevolent people, including royalty. It was a charitable organisation that cared for and educated those with learning disabilities especially those of early years. It was intended as a school and as a refuge to prepare students as far as is able for the duties and enjoyment of life.

In an article in the  Illustrated London News they trace some of the perceived causes of learning disabilities from case notes. One child is from a family of thirteen children, the other twelve died from a similar condition. It says that it is sad that some cases have been caused by the bad practice of servants frightening children. The rattling of curtains, and stalking of sheet ghosts to frighten children into obedience can produce great damage, and are to be condemned. Others have been caused by nurses drugging their charges with Godfrey's Cordial and other narcotics.

Thanks to the British Newspaper Archive for the details.

Thankyou to the Royal Earlswoood Hospital - A Historical Sketch for the date.

25 April 2019

April 25th 1886 - Freud opens First Practise


Sigmund Freud aspired to become a professor of neurology and had published several important articles in this area, including some articles about cocaine. Then, on April 25th 1886, Freud opened a private practice as a neurologist. This was to be the start or a career in the treatment of nervous diseases. Freud first tried out hypnosis but then developed  the 'talking cure'.

24 April 2019

24th April 2019 - Britney seeks Mental Healing

There were a lot of news stories on 24th April 2019 after Britney checking into a Mental Health Clinic. She tried to put fans worries to rest saying I just needed time to heal. But don’t worry, I’ll be back very soon.

She added: You may not know this about me, but I am strong, and stand up for what I want! Your love and dedication is amazing, but what I need right now is a little bit of privacy to deal with all the hard things that life is throwing my way. If you could do that, I would be forever grateful. Love you.

23 April 2019

23rd April 1886 - Withered Leaves at Essex County Asylum


I read in the Chelmsford Chronicle - on 23rd April 1886 - that two plays were performed at the Recreation Hall of the Essex County Asylum at Brentwood.

During the winter a series of performances had been presented to relieve the tedium of the winter months and this was the last.

The patients thoroughly enjoyed the plays and followed them with keen and intelligent interest. In the first, a comedy, called Withered leaves, the audience showed unmistakably their sense of right and wrong by vigorously hissing Cecil Vane, the villain of the piece. The Asylum band under Mr Byford played a capital selection of music during the intervals. There then followed an amusing farce called 'Who's to win'.

Loud applause greeted the performers at the close of the performance.

Thanks to the British Newspaper archive for the article and date.

The recreation hall had been added in 1879 at the centre of the main building. More about Essex County Asylum is here

22 April 2019

22nd April 1868 - Caterham Asylum Foundation Stone

The foundation stone for Caterham Asylum, later to become St Lawrences Hospital, was laid on 22nd April 1868.

The capital of England was in dire need of better provision for the growing population. Workshouses were deemed not able to cope with those with mental conditions. The Metropolitan Poor Act was signed off in parliament in 1867, and the Metropolitan Asylums District created. The plans for two identical aslyums for insane paupers were drawn up, one at Leavesdon in Hertforshire, north London, and one in Caterham, eighteen miles south of London. The Caterham Asylum's foundation stone was laid by Dr William Henry Brewer MP, chairman of the Metropolitan Asylum Board, on 22nd April 1868.

The plans involved a central reception described at the time as in good taste and by no means unpicturesque. Behind it was an industrial sized laundry, kitchen, workshop blocks, with a range of tall ward blocks either side, males to the north, and females and children to the south. The upper floors were connected by fire bridges (pictured above).

The male wards were called MA1, MA2, MA3 (block one) .... all the way along to .... MF1, MF2, MF3(block six). Each ward had its own particular type of resident and culture. MA1 was the medical ward. MB1 and MD1 held the most severely handicapped. MD3 took the more troublesome residents.

I am indebted to Robert Malster's excellent book St Lawrences - The Story of a hospital 1870-1994 for some of the history and the date.

21 April 2019

21st April 1990 - Mental Hospital Closures happening rapidly

In the British Medical Journal of the 21st April 1990 there was an article After the Asylums - What does Community Care mean now?

At the time the hospital closure programme was happening rapidly. The article said The National Schizophrenia Fellowship fellowship established that 30 mental hospitals closed between 1980 and 1989 and that a further 38, with 12 500 beds, were earmarked for closure before 1995. In 1954 the number of psychiatric beds peaked at 148,000 and the target was 47,900. About 64,000 remained at this point in time.

The article spoke about what community care was available. That the majority of community care was with relatives and friends and that this is not always the best option. In 1988, the National Schizophrenia Fellowship had 5000 appeals for help in such cases.

The article considered hostels as a better option in some cases but found it difficult to get good statistics on what was available. Hostels were run locally by so many different organisations such as the Richmond Fellowship, MIND, the Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association and the Mental After Care Association. There were also private sector homes but many of these were for the elderly and not younger people.

The article concluded there was a great need to find what facilities were available by region and where more were still needed as the closure programme continued.

Thankyou to the BMJ for the date

20 April 2019

20th April 1745 - Philippe Pinel was born


Philippe Pinel was born on 20th April 1745. He trained to be a doctor but even after moving to Paris found it difficult to find a position and gave lessons in mathematics to make ends meet. He was a humble and kind man. Then after the French Revolution in 1793 he was appointed as the doctor in charge at the Bicetre, a place where the mentally ill were held and treated in dark dungeons like animals in a zoo. He remained there only about a year and a half, but with the nurse Jean-Baptiste Pussin, he abolished the chains and freed many former patients. He treated them with love and kindness and many returned to the outside world. He was then appointed to Salpêtrière in 1795, where he continued to improve the living conditions of patients. He develops what he calls moral treatment. Love and kindness are the 2 greatest medicines known to man. Hatred and chains never cured anyone of anything. His abolition of chains is now one of the founding myths of French psychiatry and helped to demystify mental illness.

Thankyou to Wikipedia April 20th for the date

19 April 2019

19th April 1874 - Ernst Rüdin was born


Swiss Psychiatrist Ernst Rüdin was born on 19th April 1874. He published studies showing a genetic cause in some mental conditions. Then when the Nazis came to power in Germany he emigrated there and argued that people diagnosed with genetic conditions should be sterilised to protect the German race. His scientific evidence gave support to the the 1933 German law allowing the sterilisation of people with various mental conditions. In later years the Nazis also killed mental patients. He may not have been directly involved in the killings but his ideas gave justification to Nazi atrocities. After the end of the war he was placed under house arrest but claimed his work had been scientific and got off fairly lightly.

Thankyou to wikipedia 19 april for the date

18 April 2019

18th April, 1678 - John Evelyn visits new magnificent Bedlam


On 18th April, 1678, John Evelyn reported in his diary 'I went to see new Bedlam Hospital, magnificently built, and most sweetly placed in Moorfields, since the dreadful fire in London.'

Evelyn's diary has entries running from 1640 to 1706. According to wikipedia, at the start of 1674 governors decided to move Bedlam as "the Hospitall House of Bethlem is very olde, weake & ruinous and too small and streight for keepeing the greater number of lunaticks therein at present". 

So they had a magnificent new hospital built - designed by Robert Hooke.

Thankyou to Mental Health Timeline for the date.

17 April 2019

17th April 1840 - Hippolyte Bernheim was born



On 17th April 1840 Hippolyte Bernheim was born. At the University of Nancy he pioneered the use of hypnotism and noted how people who are hypnotised become more suggestible. The use of such suggestibility whether in hypnotism or a waking state led to the development of psychotherapy. Freud studied under Bernheim and Charcot, the two people important in using hypnotism as a therapeutic technique in the 1800s.

16 April 2019

16th April 1943 - LSD hallucinogenic properties discovered


On 16th April 1943 – Albert Hofmann, a Swiss chemist, discovered the hallucinogenic properties of the drug LSD. He first synthesized the drug in 1938 as one of a number of ergot alkaloids, derived from a fungus that grows on rye, and ingested the drug five years later by accident.

He went on to write a a book on LSD: My Problem Child.

In the book he says of that day: ... Last Friday, April 16,1943, I was forced to interrupt my work in the laboratory in the middle of the afternoon and proceed home, being affected by a remarkable restlessness, combined with a slight dizziness. At home I lay down and sank into a not unpleasant intoxicated-like condition, characterized by an extremely stimulated imagination. In a dreamlike state, with eyes closed (I found the daylight to be unpleasantly glaring), I perceived an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors. After some two hours this condition faded away.

Hofman did further controlled experiments upon himself. Then research was carried out by others into the psychiatric and psychic effects of the drug. But about ten years later Hofman was surprised that LSD increasingly became popular as a recreational drug and ended up being banned as people worried about the side effects.

Thanks to David Webb's book On this Day in Psychology for the date.

15 April 2019

15th April 1968 - Star Letter


In the Daily Mirror on the 15th April 1968 the star letter from Mrs I in Manchester told people about going into a Mental Hospital. It was suggested for her as months on anti-depressants had not worked.

She was placed on an 'Open ward' where they were allowed to come and go so long as they were back for meals. In the grounds was a cafe, a shop that sold everything you could want, a library and a recreation room where dances and socials were held. Once a week they went to the local cinema. There were also art classes in the ward.

So the writer says anybody who has to go in for nerves or depression should not worry. Thanks to a marvellous nurse and two fine doctors her stay was brief.

The Editor thanked her saying it would give comfort to others.

With thanks to Trinity Mirror, and British Newspaper Archives, for the date.

14 April 2019

14th April 1813- first private psychiatric hospital in the United States


The first private, non profit, psychiatric hospital in the United States was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by the Society of Friends (Quakers) on 14th April 1813, and called The Asylum for the Relief of Persons Deprived of the Use of Their Reason. The hospital was opened for the admission of patients on 15th May 1817.

According to the New York Times The Friends did not like the way people could pay to gawk at patients in the public asylum in Philadelphia, and the way some were chained up. With the opening of this hospital the Quakers led the way in more humane treatment in the US.

In 1914 its name was changed to Friends Hospital, and still operates with the original Mission Statement as seen on their website https://friendshospital.com/

"To provide for the suitable accommodation of persons who are or may be deprived of the use of their reason, and the maintenance of an asylum for their reception, which is intended to furnish, besides requisite medical aid, such tender, sympathetic attention as may soothe their agitated minds, and under the Divine Blessing, facilitate their recovery."

Thankyou to today in psychology history for the date.

13 April 2019

13th April 1906 - Samuel Beckett Born


Samuel Beckett was born on April 13th 1906. He was an under achiever at school who enjoyed sport. He wasted the first 2 years at University where he found the lectures a waste of time. But found his love of foreign languages in the third year and did well in finals.

He loved French, moved to France, and started writing. But what he wrote was not exactly what publishers could sell. His works followed the themes of alienation, existentialism, emptiness and searching.

He wrote a novel called Murphy (1938) relating the story of a character in a mental hospital. This was after his own experience. His dad died in 1933 and he began to experience panic attacks and depression, and eventually went for psychoanalysis to try and find his way through.

Beckett worked for the French resistance during the war. This included waiting in strange places for messages that never came.

Then he turned his hand to writing plays first in French, then translated into English. His first play Waiting for Godot was a great critical success. It is a play where two tramps are waiting in a forlorn landscape for somebody called Godot who never comes. He wrote other less well known plays.

Becket was awarded the Nobel Literature prize in 1969. His partner said this is a catastrophe. She knew how much Becket hated being in public. His literary agent collected the prize and Becket gave the money to a good cause.

Becket wrote We are all born mad, some remain so

and

You're on the earth. There's no cure for that

and

Ever tried. Ever failed. No matter. Try Again. Fail again. Fail better.

Thanks to Wikipedia 13th April for the day, and random readings for what is written here.

12 April 2019

12th April 1941 - Alan Kent Malyon was born


On 12th April 1941 Alan Kent Malyon was born. He was a clinical psychologist who dealt primarily with the emotional problems of gays and lesbians. For a long time psychiatry had viewed homosexuality as a mental illness to be treated. Maylon led a successful campaign to have 'egodystonic homosexuality' removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. He also led the way in Gay affirmative psychotherapy, a form of psychotherapy that helps people accept their sexual orientation.

He was the author of many articles dealing with both chronic pain, and gay psychotherapy.

Thanks to David Webb's book On this Day in Psychology for the date.

11 April 2019

11th April 1906 - Freud to Jung Letter 1


On 11th April 1906 Sigmund Freud sent to Carl Jung a short letter that began a correspondence of over 360 letters. In the letter Sigmund thanked Carl for sending his book of word association studies, which praised the importance of Freud's psychoanalytic ideas. Freud was gratified and thanked Jung.

The correspondence ended less well after seven years when in reply to Jung's growing sarcasm, Freud wrote I propose that we abandon our personal relations entirely. I shall lose nothing by it, for my only emotional tie with you has been a long thin thread - the lingering effect of past disappointments.

Thanks to On This Day in Psychology by David Webb for the date.

10 April 2019

10th April 1958 - Pope Pius XII endorses psychotherapy


On 10th April 1958 Pope Pius XII endorsed modern psychological practices, on the whole, but opposed the use of truth serum, lie detectors, or anything else that enter in against a person's will. This followed years of opposition to psychoanalysis by the Roman Catholic Church. Thanks to the today in psychology history for this date and details.

In a similar way Pope Francis said that he willingly underwent 6 months of psychoanalysis at the age of 42 and that it clarified a lot of things.

A Guardian article said that in the catholic church there is a recognition that social sciences can help unearth issues that need to be dealt with.

09 April 2019

9th April 1850 - George Huntington was born


On April 9th 1850 George Huntington was born.

As a young doctor, aged 22, he described in a paper a condition which he called Chorea. It was a neural degenerative condition that involved brief random involuntary movements, and the loss of control over limbs and speech and swallowing. The onset could start from age 30 to 50. It ran in families with an about 50% chance of inheritance. It also involved mental degeneration.

The word chorea is derived from the Latin 'choreus', meaning dance, and the condition was subsequently called Huntington's Chorea (or disease) after the young doctor who, in his first medical paper, described the condition so well.

Woody Guthrie , the folk singer, had the condition, as did his mum.

Thankyou to today in psychology history for the date.

08 April 2019

8th April 1936 - Fevesham Committee starts work


On 8th April 1936 Lord Fevesham chaired the first meeting of the Fevesham Committee. It was formed to 'Inquire into the extent of mental disorder in England and Wales and the measures taken to deal with it by statutory and voluntary agencies. '

It took evidence from many statutory and voluntary services. There were at that time hundreds of local voluntary groups concerned with 'Mental Hygiene' or 'Mental Welfare'. There were also 4 large national organisations:
* The Mental After Care founded by Lord Shaftesbury (established in 1879)
* The Central Association for Mental Welfare (established in 1913)
* The National Council for Mental Hygiene (established in 1922)
* The Child Guidance Council (established in 1927)

One of the main recommendations of this committee, in the report that came out in 1939, was better co-ordination, and the creation of a new central voluntary body.

No real action was taken until after WWII but the organisations did look to work more closely. Then in 1946 The National Association for Mental Health (NAMH) was founded - that later became MIND. It brought together and created a lot of the local organisations as local MINDs.

Thanks to A History of MIND, and The Wellcome library for this information , and Thanks to the Mental Health Timeline for the date and the quote in the first paragraph.

07 April 2019

7th April 1847 - North and East Ridings Pauper Lunatic Asylum opened


On 7th April 1847 the North and East Ridings Pauper Lunatic Asylum opened its doors. Pauper refers to ordinary working class people who could not afford the fees of private asylums and so the poor law unions were responsible for their fees.

It was built as a joint venture by the North and East Ridings of Yorkshire, and was planned in 1843 before the law in 1845 made it mandatory for areas to have their own Asylum. The more industrial West Riding had its own Asylum.

On opening it had accommodation for 144, and the first medical superintendent described it as having a homely, domestic family atmosphere, in contrast to the regimes in many other places. By 1858 additional wings had been added, and there were 472 patients, and it perhaps lost some of the earlier homeliness.

Then in 1865 the East Riding built its own Asylum, and it became just the North Riding Asylum. This allowed more room for a time. The buildings were expanded many times after that.

It became the North Riding Mental Hospital in 1920 and the Clifton Hospital in 1948.

Clifton Hospital closed in July 1994. Like many old institutions a book was written to remember the old place. The book was 'Clifton Hospital - An Era' by M.T.Haslam.

Thanks to the following 2 websites for the information:
Clifton Hospital, York - County Asylums
Bird Childs and Goldsmith Dora Childs and Aaron Tempest

06 April 2019

6th April 1886 - Walter Dandy was born


Walter Edward Dandy (April 6, 1886 – April 19, 1946) was one of the founding fathers of neurosurgery and is given credit for a number of discoveries including the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, and surgical treatment of hydrocephalus.

After medical school, Dandy published a study on cerebrospinal fluid production. He created pneumo-encephalography - the basis of neurological imaging for many years. Other innovations included surgery by clipping for aneurysms (bulging blood vessels) and other blood vessel malformations .

To honor his numerous accomplishments the John Hopkins Institute established the Walter E. Dandy Professorship. The link also describes him as great family man with a memoir by his daughter.

Thankyou to Wikipedia 6th April for the date. Picture from John Hopkins Intitute (in public domain).

05 April 2019

5th April 1898 - Sally Beauchamp first hypnotised


On 5th April 1898, the pioneering psychologist, Morton Prince first hypnotised his patient, Sally Beauchamp, who he went on to discover had three distinct personalities. He traced the separation into distinct personalities to a trauma. Under hypnosis one personality would deny having said what another personality had said and so they appeared to be in some sense autonomous.

He went on to fully document the case of multiple personality in his book 'The Dissociation of a Personality.' Prince details the different likes dislikes and characteristics of the different personalities. He describes a house divided against itself with different personalities coming to the fore and doing incompatible things, and causing real distress to Miss Beauchamp.

Thanks to On This Day in Psychology by David Webb for the date

04 April 2019

4th April 1802 - Dorothea Dix born



Dorothea Lynde Dix was born on 4th April 1802. At a time when women could not vote she achieved a great deal in improving care of the mentally ill.

She started out wanting to teach - an outlet allowed to women, and taught a Sunday class in the Jail in Massachusetts where she was appalled to see the conditions some mentally ill residents lived in.

She visited other institutions of the time and wrote up her findings to be read to the Massachusetts State legislature. People were shocked and this led to the founding of a more humane institution. She did similar things in other US states, bringing to the attention of the governors the state of care for the mentally ill. In all she helped found 32 hospitals for people with mental illness.

Dorthea Dix also came to England, and stayed with Samuel Tuke, the founder of the York Retreat for the mentally ill. She then visited Scotland and presented a report for the Royal Commission looking into the lunacy law of Scotland. The model of care that Dix promoted was based on the work of French psychiatrist Philippe Pinel and seeing the York Retreat.

Thanks to the today in psychology history for the date

03 April 2019

3rd April 1860 - Frederik van Eeden born


Frederik van Eeden was born on 3rd April 1860. He was a Dutch novelist, dramatist, poet and critic who also studied medicine and became interested in psychiatry and established the first clinic of abnormal psychology in Holland.

He was also the first person to use the phrase Lucid Dream. In Dreams by Frederik van Eeden he distinguishes seven types of dreams and says "In these lucid dreams ... the sleeper reaches a state of perfect awareness, and is able to direct his attention, and to attempt different acts of free volition. Yet the sleep ... is undisturbed..." He also wrote about dreams in the novel The Bride of Dreams.

Van Eeden also incorporated his psychiatric practice into his later writings including the novel Van de koele meren des doods (The Deeps of Deliverance). It follows the life of his heroine Hedwig who is beset by melancholy from an early age.

Van Eeden wanted a better society and set up a commune in line with his social ideas.

Picture is  Zhuangzi dreaming of a butterfly (or a butterfly dreaming of Zhuangzi) from Wikipedia. Thankyou to Wikipedia 3rd April for the date.

02 April 2019

2nd April 2008 - World Autism Awareness Day


The United Nations General Assembly declared that 2nd April 2008 would be the first World Autism Awareness Day. Autism is one of only four United Nations days for health issues. This shows the concern surrounding the condition that affects children in many countries irrespective of gender, race or socio-economic status.

The aim was to raise public awareness of autism and the rights of the child in member nations and to make the world more inclusive and welcoming for people with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

The Convention on the Rights of the Child says that children with disabilities should enjoy a full and decent life, in conditions which ensure dignity, promote self-reliance and facilitate the child’s active participation in the community.

Autism is a complex range of conditions. It inhibits a person’s ability to communicate and develop social relationships, and is often accompanied by extreme behavioural challenges.

2nd April 2019 will be the twelfth such day. Thankyou to wikipedia 2nd April for the date.

01 April 2019

1st April 1909 - Netherne Hospital Opened


Netherne Hospital opened its doors on the 1st April 1909.

Prior to 1840 patients from Surrey either got sent to Bethlem or a private asylum. In 1840 Wandsworth Asylum was built to accommodate Surrey patients; a second asylum was built at Brookwood, and a third at Cane Hill, but when London expanded to take over a large area of Surrey south of the River Thames, Cane Hill was used for London residents. Then as Brookwood filled up and was no longer large enough for Surrey it was decided to erect a new asylum at Netherne on a farming estate on a hill two miles from Coulsdon. The direct path to the Asylum was quite steep and crossed high above a railway cutting, and so a zig zig road was constructed up the hill for vehicles.

Netherne was initially designed for 960 patients, but with plenty of room to grow. The main building itself was in the shape of a south facing arc so that all the wards could get the sun during the day. It was unlike previous Victorian custodial style asylums, and built of pale red brick and portland stone on two levels. There were villas separate from the main hospital to give some chronic patients - who worked on the land, and convalescent patients - ready to be discharged, a less institutional type of place to live. There was also a chapel, admin block, recreation hall, accommodation for nurses, and a cemetery. The whole estate was about 350 acres, and employed patients on a farm which included cows for milk, and a piggery with about 120 pigs to consume the food waste.

Thanks to the Surrey Mirror of 9th April 1909 on the British Newspaper Archive for some of the details.

The picture above is one I took in 1977 of the admin area and a board with directions.The hospital was wound down and closed in 1994, but quite a lot of the buildings retained for the new village of Netherne on the Hill..